What are Madame Jeanette peppers?
The first thing that comes to mind when you hear “Madame Jeanette” is not likely one of the hotter chili peppers on the planet. But that’s what it is. The Madame Jeanette (a.k.a. Suriname pepper) runs from 125,000 to 325,000 Scoville heat units (SHU), ranking right up there with its cousins, the habanero and scotch bonnet peppers, in overall heat. Though where those chilies layer in a sweet tropical flavor, the Madame Jeanette instead is subdued in taste. It’s a heat bomb of a chili – yet quite aromatic when cooking – and a staple in Surinamese cuisine.
Table of Contents
- What are Madame Jeanette peppers?
- Madame Jeanette pepper fast facts
- Madam Jeanette? Where does the name come from?
- How hot are Madame Jeanette peppers?
- What do these chilies look like?
- What do Madame Jeanette peppers taste like?
- How do you use this pepper?
- Where can you buy Madame Jeanette peppers?
- Must-read related posts
Madame Jeanette pepper fast facts
|Scoville heat units (SHU)||125,000 – 325,000|
|Median heat (SHU)||225,000|
|Jalapeño reference point||15 to 130 times hotter|
|Size||Two to three inches long, varied shape|
Madam Jeanette? Where does the name come from?
It’s true, this chili has one of the more unique names on the pepper scale. It’s believed Madame Jeanette peppers were named after a famous Brazilian prostitute. But why is up for debate. Perhaps it was as simple as this chili being “scorching hot.”
How hot are Madame Jeanette peppers?
At 125,000 to 325,000 Scoville heat units, the Madame Jeanette is not a chili to be trifled with lightly. That’s 15 to 130 times hotter than our jalapeño reference point, as mentioned, much like its habanero cousin.
But unlike the habanero where the heat tends to concentrate in the back of the throat, the heat of the Madam Jeanette is an “all mouth” affair. You feel the spiciness from the first bite all around, much like another habanero cousin – the Caribbean goat pepper. This gives the sense that the Madame Jeanette is hotter than its Scoville rating indicates.
What do these chilies look like?
This chili varies in shape more than many other types of hot peppers. They sometimes look like slightly elongated bell peppers, two to three inches in length. Then other times, they are thin, curved, and slightly wrinkled like a habanero. Still, other times, the Madame Jeanette has almost a pumpkin-like shape – similar to a goat pepper or scotch bonnet – and they even can be seen with a scorpion-like tail.
These chilies come in two colors: yellow (also called Suriname Yellow) and red (Suriname Red). Both varieties age from green to their named hue.
What do Madame Jeanette peppers taste like?
Hot. When eaten fresh, that’s the legitimate taste takeaway. The Madame Jeanette’s overall flavor isn’t as complex as many of its relatives. It’s rather subdued in flavor – so subdued that really the major “whole mouth” heat is the flavor experienced. Though cooking this chili does bring the flavors to life. It’s highly aromatic with a slight fruity sweetness. There are very light hints of pineapple and mango here.
How do you use this pepper?
The super subtle flavor with very high heat does make the Madame Jeanette a very versatile chili pepper for extreme cooking. It’s a common ingredient in Surinamese and Antillean cuisine, and it works perfectly with salsas, hot sauces, enchiladas, and other savory dishes where there’s concern that a bolder flavored chili may impact the taste of the dish. It’s also quite common in Indian sambal (27% of the Suriname population is of Indian descent.)
Where can you buy Madame Jeanette peppers?
They aren’t easy to find outside of South America. Even the seeds are difficult to find (outside of online retailers) as these chilies, while prolific growers, don’t fair well outside of tropical climates (though indoor growing is possible.) If you do come across the opportunity to enjoy a Madame Jeanette pepper – whether fresh, in sambal, or pureed in a sauce – take it. This is one of the more difficult gets on the pepper scale.
Must-read related posts
- The Hot Pepper List: We profile 150+ chilies. Search our list by name, flavor, heat level, and more.
- The Hottest Peppers In The World: Which chilies are at the top? We go in detail.
- Habanero Vs. Scotch Bonnet: How do these two extra-hot chilies compare?
Fortunately here in The Netherlands, Madame Jeanette chilli peppers are easy to find. Suriname was a Dutch colony, There are a lot of people from Suriname living in The Netherlands. Luckily for us, they brought their absolutely delicious cuisine with them. Bruine bonen met rijst, (brown beans and rice) is a super yummy example and needs Madame Jeanette peppers. Every Surinamse grocery shop and and even regular supermarkets like Albert Heijn, have fresh Madame Jeanette chilli peppers. I’m going to try growing my own next year, (2022).
Madame Jeanette peppers are widely and cheaply available here in the Netherlands, due to the colonial history of the Dutch occupation of Suriname. Many Surinamese Dutch people live here and every Surinamese Roti restaurant serves Madame Jeanette sauces. It can be bought whole in local specialty shops for foreign products (called ‘tokos’), as well as mainstream supermarkets nowadays (Albert Heijn).
I just used some in my breakfast potatoes (potato, onion, garlic, minced pepper) here in Suriname at Oxygen Resort. The scent when cooking seems to blend with the oil in my skin, so I’ve learned to always wash up after cooking with Madame Jeanettes. Pepper in the eyes is no fun.
Thank you for the great write up. I’m from Surinam myself and have always enjoyed this pepper in the different cultural dishes. Unfortunately after moving to the US I’ve had no access to this pepper except when I visit home. I’m going to attempt to grow them in the US, so wish me luck.
Hey! Thanks for this amazing detail on Madame Jeanette chili pepper. Do you think it can grow in Africa?